Close
Please Wait. Loading Menu...

Courses Offered

BIOL 110-129 Biological Inquiry (CORE—Scientific Thought/Laboratory Course)

(Either semester/4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours, may take more than one different 100-level course. Junior and senior biology majors cannot take a second Biology 110-129 course without permission from the Department.) 

These courses promote the student’s understanding and appreciation of biology, the scientific approach to problem solving and the importance of science in our society. Various topics will be offered each semester. Laboratory work is an integral part of each course.

 

BIOL 111 Secret Lives of Plants (CORE—Scientific Thought/Laboratory Course)

(4 credits/3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours) 

This course will expand students’ botanical horizons. Students will learn that plant life is central to life on earth. This course will emphasize the structure and function of plants, how they grow and develop, the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration and the diversity of photosynthesizing organisms.

 

BIOL 112 Biology of Food and Nutrition (CORE—Scientific Thought/Laboratory Course)

(4 credits/3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours) 

This course will examine core concepts in biology through the lens of food. We will explore questions such as: What is food and what is it made of? How do different types of organisms obtain food? Why do organisms need food and what do they do with it after they get it? We will also study biological processes in the context of food as it relates to Homo sapiens. Topics will include nutrition, food-borne disease, food preparation and preservation.

 

BIOL 113 Newsstand Biology (CORE—Scientific Thought/Laboratory Course)

(4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

Fundamental biological concepts will be studied in readings and discussions taken from current “popular” scientific literature. The course will convey ways in which biology touches our lives as well as the excitement of scientific discovery.

 

BIOL 114 Biodiversity (CORE—Scientific Thought/Laboratory Course)

(4 credits/3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours) 

This course explores the broad history of biological diversity, from the origins of life through the evolution of dinosaurs to the disappearance of prehistoric mammals during the last Ice Age. Current issues addressed will include the scope of present-day biological diversity, its usefulness to humans and its importance to ecosystems. The course will emphasize the causes of extinction, its possible consequences and strategies to conserve and restore biological diversity for the future.

 

BIOL 117 This Course Will Bug You (CORE—Scientific Thought/Laboratory Course)

(4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

This course is designed to introduce the student to insects as a unique life form. The student should gain an appreciation for the diversity of form and function that exists in the insect world. We will develop an understanding of insects as organisms within the ecology of the earth, investigating how insects live, studying their life cycles and understanding how insects and humans interact. Insects will be used as models to explore the fundamental biological concepts of evolution, anatomy, physiology, genetics, behavior and ecology. Special topics will include: insects as vectors of disease, forensic entomology, invasive species and controlling insect pests. All students will be required to prepare an insect collection.

 

BIOL 130-149 Biological Inquiry (CORE—Scientific Thought/Non-Laboratory Course)

(Either semester/3 credits/3 class hours, may be repeated once with a different topic. Junior and senior biology majors cannot take any Biology 130-149 course without permission from the department.) 

These courses promote the student’s understanding and appreciation of biology, the scientific approach to problem solving and the importance of science in our society. Various topics will be offered each semester.

 

BIOL 132 Biology of Aging (CORE—Scientific Thought/Non-Laboratory Course)

Prerequisite: Open to sophomores, juniors and seniors. (3 credits/3 class hours) 

A study of time-related changes in human beings. Emphasis will be placed on the last two stages of development. Theories of aging and the net effect of normal and pathological aging on the body systems will be discussed.

 

BIOL 134 The Biology of Cancer (CORE—Scientific Thought/Non-Laboratory Course)

(3 credits/3 class hours) 

Core concepts in biology will be examined by exploring the impact of cancer on the individual cell and the entire organism. In addition to an introductory textbook, readings and discussions will focus on how to obtain the scientific knowledge a citizen of the 21st century needs to be able to understand the human condition. Emphasis will be on cellular structure and function, energy metabolism and regulation of cell reproduction, as well as information concerning the scientific basis of some currently available treatments.

 

BIOL 138 The Human Health Mosaic (CORE—Scientific Thought/Non-Laboratory Course)

(3 credits/3 class hours) 

Human health and longevity are predicted by a number of factors from family history to immediate environment. This course will introduce students to basic cell biology, physiology, genetics, nutrition, evolution and ecology with a focus on human health. Throughout the course we will focus on how to be a careful, critical reader of popular science articles concerning human health factors. Students will also explore a number of specialty topics, such as the science of cigarette addiction.

 

BIOL 139 Bugs Rule the World (CORE—Scientific Thought/Non-Laboratory Course)

(3 credits/3 class hours) 

The majority of described species are insects. They play a major role in human health, agriculture and the world economy. This course will introduce students to basic cell biology, physiology, genetics, evolution and ecology using insect models. Throughout the course we will practice the art of reading popular science articles about insects from a critical, informed perspective. Students will also explore a number of specialty topics, such as the impact of genetic engineering on insect populations.

 

BIOL 140 Biology of Symbiosis (CORE—Scientific Thought/Non-Laboratory Course)

(3 credits/3 class hours) 

Symbioses, in which different organisms are intimately associated for a significant portion of their lives, are everywhere in nature, and they are an essential component of the health of individual organisms and ecosystems. In fact, symbiosis is one of the reasons that many organisms can even exist! In this course we will explore the diversity of types of symbiotic relationships between unicellular organisms and animals, plants and fungi. Students will be introduced to the general biology, physiology and ecology of associations between algae and invertebrates (such as corals), Rhizobia and legumes and chemoautotrophic/methanotrophic bacteria and marine invertebrates. We will also examine the interactions between the partners of lichens, mycorrhizal associations (fungi and tree roots), digestive/nutritional symbioses (such as termites, ruminants and human guts) and bioluminescent symbioses.

 

BIOL 201 Evolution and Ecology

Prerequisites: BIOL 110-129 course or ENSP 101 and 102 or permission of instructor (Second semester/4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

Evolution is the unifying theory of biology. This course will introduce you to the fundamental concepts of evolution, the study of changes in organisms over time and to ecology, the study of organisms and their environment. These two topics are naturally paired, as ecology is the basis of the selective pressures that lead to evolution.

 

BIOL 202 Physiology of Plants and Animals

Prerequisites: BIOL 110-129 or ENSP 101 and 102, and CHEM 101 (or concurrent), or permission of instructor. (First semester/4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

A study of the wide variety of structural and functional adaptations found in members of the plant and animal kingdoms. The topics of investigation include nutrient procurement, gas exchange, internal transport, movement, development, reproduction and chemical control mechanisms. Lectures and laboratories will focus on the physiological systems of various plant divisions and animal phyla.

 

BIOL 203 Introduction to Cell Biology and Genetics

Prerequisites: BIOL 110-129 course or ENSP 101 and 102, and CHEM 102 (or concurrent), or permission of instructor. (Second semester/4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

A study of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels. What are the challenges of being a cell? The course will examine this question and study how cells have evolved to meet these challenges. Emphasis will be on the structure/function relationships of cells, on the energetic demands of cells and on the information storage and retrieval mechanisms of cells. In addition to the above topics, the laboratory portion of the course will familiarize students with modern molecular genetic techniques.

 

BIOL 309 Aquatic Ecology

Prerequisite: BIOL 201 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

Concepts of ecology are elucidated using examples from freshwater, marine and estuarine systems. The course investigates the biological and ecological processes that comprise functioning aquatic systems. We will consider the workings of lakes, streams, bays, oceanic waters, rocky shores, soft-sediment bottoms, grass beds, marshes and coral reefs. Field trips will emphasize a wide variety of aquatic habitats. Case studies of resource management issues and human impacts on aquatic environments will exemplify the application of aquatic ecological concepts.

 

BIOL 307 Human Anatomy and Physiology

Prerequisites: BIOL 202 and BIOL 203, or permission of the instructor. (First semester/ 4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

An integrated, introductory course in anatomy and physiology emphasizing the structure and function of the human body. The structure, physiology and interrelationships of the organs and organ systems of the body are studied. Designed for students in the allied health fields.

 

BIOL 316 Genetics

Prerequisites: BIOL 201 and 203 and CHEM 209 (or concurrent enrollment), or permission of the instructor. (Second semester/4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

An in-depth investigation into the mechanisms of heredity. Students will build a strong framework of knowledge in transmission genetics, including topics such as advanced Mendelian analysis, linkage and recombination and gene and chromosome mutations. From this framework, the course will explore the foundations of molecular genetics. Topics include the biochemistry of the gene, the genetics of biochemical pathways, DNA function, control of gene expression and recombinant DNA technology and its applications. Next, the course will take a modern population genetics perspective and examine the importance of genetic variation to natural populations and the evolutionary forces that shape that variation. The course will conclude by considering the scientific context and societal implications of modern genetics through topics such as genetic screening.

 

BIOL 331 Microbiology

Prerequisites: BIOL 203 and CHEM 209, or permission of the instructor. (Second semester/4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

A study of the structure and function of microorganisms with emphasis on bacteria. Microbiological processes important in medical, industrial and environmental applications will be discussed.

 

BIOL 335 Teaching Assistantship in Biology

(Either semester/2 credits/1 conference hour, 3 laboratory hours) 

An opportunity for qualified juniors and seniors to assist in the instruction of BIOL 110- 129, BIOL 201, BIOL 202 or BIOL 203, and other selected courses. Interested students are selected by the department. Grading is on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

 

BIOL 336 Vertebrate Zoology

Prerequisites: BIOL 201 and BIOL 202 (First semester—odd years/4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

Vertebrate zoology explores the biological themes of unity and diversity among the vertebrates. The course emphasizes the functional morphology, ecology and evolutionary biology of the major vertebrate groups, both past and present. A conservation biology perspective on extant and recently extinct vertebrate groups highlights the interplay between organismal, population and higher levels of biological organization. The laboratory introduces theoretical and fieldwork techniques for studying vertebrates.

 

BIOL 337 Invertebrate Zoology

Prerequisites: BIOL 201 and 202, or permission of the instructor. (Second semester—odd years/ 4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

An introduction to the biology of invertebrate animals, especially the marine forms. Emphasis will be placed on the physiology, ecology, functional morphology and evolutionary relationships of the major groups. Students will collect animals from a variety of field sites and examine them in the laboratory. The primary collecting area will be the estuary and barrier island complex near the Duke University Marine Laboratory in Beaufort, N.C.

 

BIOL 338 Advanced Ecology

Prerequisites: BIOL 201 and BIOL 203, or permission of instructor. (Offered as needed/4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

A literature-based course covering areas of current research in the design of experiments, evolutionary biology, population genetics, community ecology and ecosystem science. The course emphasizes reading and critiquing the primary scientific literature. Lectures and laboratories will stress that modern ecology and evolutionary biology are hypothesis- driven sciences, and that posing sound arguments and collecting solid supporting evidence are essential for a deeper understanding of the history of life on earth and its present day organization at levels above the individual. Students will put these ideas into practice through the laboratory component of the course as they work on two extended research projects in the field, the greenhouse or the lab.

 

BIOL 339 Cell Biology

Prerequisites: BIOL 203 and CHEM 209 (or concurrent enrollment), or permission of the instructor. (First semester/4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

The study of cellular structure and function. Cellular organelles’ contribution to the life of the cell are examined. Differentiated and specialized cells are used to illustrate genetic and molecular mechanisms.

 

BIOL 343 Animal Behavior

Prerequisites: BIOL 201 and BIOL 202, or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/ 4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

An examination of the mechanisms of behavior and the interactions between animals including hormonal factors, population regulation, mating, altruism and communication. Laboratory work will focus on behavioral mechanisms as well as techniques for studying local animal populations.

 

BIOL 344 Ornithology

Prerequisites: BIOL 201 and either BIOL 202 or BIOL 203 (or concurrent enrollment) (Offered as needed/4 credits/3 class and 3 laboratory hours) 

Birds are excellent subjects to study all levels of biological organization, from biochemistry and genetics through physiology to ecology and evolution. Ornithology explores the biological themes of unity and diversity among modern birds and their ancient ancestors. The course emphasizes the functional morphology, ecology, evolution and conservation biology of bird life. A conservation management perspective on birds will highlight proactive measures to maintain and restore bird populations for the next century. The laboratory introduces theoretical, empirical and fieldwork techniques for studying birds, and emphasizes identification of birds of the mid-Atlantic by sight and sound.

 

BIOL 345-349 Field Ecology and Natural History

Prerequisite: BIOL 201 or permission of the instructor. (January and May terms/ 3 credits/lab fee) 

Through travel to distant field sites, students will conduct a first-hand examination of the physical, chemical and biological characteristics and processes of a selected ecosystem. Students will be involved in intensive fieldwork, readings and discussion that will focus on interactions between the system’s biota and the physical and chemical parameters unique to the geographic area under examination. Comparisons will be drawn between the ecosystem under study and temperate systems more likely to be encountered near the Hood campus.

 

BIOL 375 Independent Study

(Either semester/1, 2 or 3 credits) 

Laboratory, library or field investigation of a biological problem. Selection of topic, preparation of study plan and evaluations of results are guided by means of weekly conferences with the instructor. A minimum 2.0 cumulative grade point average is required.

 

BIOL 399 Internship in Biology

Prerequisites: 20 hours of biology, 12 hours of chemistry and permission of the department. (Either semester/6 to 12 credits/16 to 32 hours each week) 

Individualized study and training in a cooperating laboratory conducting research in the biological sciences. Participation will include instruction and experience in the use of advanced laboratory equipment and field apparatus, and independent research and reading of related scientific literature under the guidance of a senior laboratory director. Grading is on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

 

BIOL 408 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology

Prerequisite: BIOL 307 or permission of instructor. (Second semester/4 credits) 

A continuation and extension of BIOL 307. Topics include fetal development, pregnancy and lactation, stress and exercise physiology, sensory function, endocrine disruption and aging. Course includes both classroom and laboratory components and is designed for biology majors and/or students in the allied health fields.

 

BIOL 411/BMS 511 Protein Biochemistry

Prerequisites: BIOL 203 and CHEM 210 or permission of the instructor. (First semester/ 3 credits/3 lecture hours) 

A study of the structure and function of biological macromolecules, particularly proteins. Topics include acid-base equilibria, protein folding, enzyme catalysis, allosterism and protein engineering.

 

BIOL 412/BMS 512 Biochemistry of Intermediary Metabolism

Prerequisites: BIOL 203 and CHEM 210 or permission of the instructor. (Second semester/ 3 credits/3 lecture hours) 

A study of the generation and storage of metabolic energy and of the structure, biosynthesis and function of nucleic acids.

 

BIOL 424/BMS 524 Molecular Biology of Eukaryotic Cells

Prerequisites: BIOL 316 and 339 or permission of the instructor. (Second semester/3 credits) 

The molecular biology of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Topics include gene mapping, diagnostic screening for genetic anomalies, molecular cloning and genetic regulatory mechanisms. Emphasis on current experimental techniques used to map genes and understand gene expression.

 

BIOL 425/BMS 525 Virology

An introduction to animal viruses with emphasis on classification, structure, the molecular biology of replication and biological activity within eukaryotic cells. 

BIOL 428/BMS 528 Immunology

Prerequisites: BIOL 331 and 339 or permission of the instructor. (First semester/3 credits) 

Theories and mechanism of the immune response, including structure and function of immunoglobulins, antigen-antibody reactions, immunobiology, immunogenetics, immunologic enhancement, immunologic protection, immunologic injury, humoral and cell mediated immunity and experimental methods of analysis of antigen-antibody reactions.

 

BIOL 434/BMS 534 Basic Principles and Methods in Molecular Genetics

(Laboratory–Lecture course) Prerequisite: BIOL 316 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/ 3 credits) 

This integrated lab-lecture course provides basic concepts and hands-on experience with common molecular genetics and recombinant DNA methods. Topics include techniques for the isolation of DNA and RNA, gene cloning employing plasmid vectors, DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), expression of fusion proteins in E. coli, site-directed mutagenesis and web-based analysis of DNA and protein sequence data.

 

BIOL 437/BMS 537 Introduction to Bioinformatics

(Laboratory–Lecture course) Prerequisite: BIOL 316 or permission of the instructor. (Both semesters/ 3 credits) 

Sequence data on numerous organisms is accumulating at staggering rates, raising important questions about how to handle and interpret the data. This hands-on, applied course will introduce students to the use of computer software and web servers in the analysis of biological sequence data (DNA and protein). Topics include: Pairwise and multiple sequence alignment, BLAST, scoring matrices, phylogenetic analysis, gene identification, DNA sequence analysis, and prediction of 2-D and 3-D molecular structures.

 

BIOL 451/ENV 551 Plant Ecology

Prerequisite: BIOL 338 or permission of the instructor. (As needed/3 credits) 

A study of the effects of environmental fluctuations on vegetational patterning, basic mechanisms and interactions within the plant environment system and current problems in plant ecology. Topics include the vital processes of plants, the effects of environmental factors on their metabolism and energy transformations and their ability to adapt to these factors.

 

BIOL 470 Biology Seminar

Prerequisites: Senior or second semester junior standing, completion of BIOL 201, BIOL 202, BIOL 203 with grades of "C-" or better, and four elective biology courses at the 300 level or above with grades of “C-” or better, or permission of the department. May be repeated once with a different topic. (Second semester/3 credits)

Advanced study in biological science. Each semester the topic will vary according to instructor and student interest. Students will apply knowledge and skills developed in prior course work and will work collaboratively to develop a grant proposal, review article, introductory biology text or other significant document. Student may take this class for their capstone or a 3 credit elective.

 

BIOL 498 Special Topics in Biology

Prerequisites: 16 credits in biology or permission of the instructor. 

This course will cover a specific current topic in biology not offered in the usual listing of electives. This course may count as an elective for the major.

 

BIOL 414/ENV 514 Comparative Animal Physiology

Prerequisites: BIOL 201, BIOL 202, BIOL 203, at least one 300-level elective and junior standing, or permission of the instructor. (Second semester-As needed/3 credits) 

This course explores the physiological adaptations of both vertebrate and invertebrate animals, with particular emphasis on the evolutionary origins and ecological significance of these adaptations. Physiological processes will be discussed from both qualitative and quantitative viewpoints at multiple levels of biological organization.

 

BIOL 141 Sensory Systems (CORE—Scientific Thought/Non-Laboratory Course)

(3 credits/3 class hours) 

The vast outer world is known to each of us only as a complex internal representation created by our brains with inputs from our sensory organs. This course explores how sensory systems relay information about our environment to the mind. Students will learn about the biological mechanisms supporting each of our five senses. Topics will include how we sense pain and the neurobiological aspects of language. In each section the class will explore current research.

 

BMS 511/BIOL 411 Protein Biochemistry

Prerequisite: Two semesters of organic chemistry. (First semester/3 credits) 

A study of the structure and function of biological macromolecules, particularly proteins. Topics include acid-base equilibria, protein folding, enzyme catalysis, allosterism and protein engineering.

BMS 512/BIOL 412 Biochemistry of Intermediary Metabolism

Prerequisite: Two semesters of organic chemistry. (Second semester/3 credits) 

A study of the generation and storage of metabolic energy and of the structure, biosynthesis and function of nucleic acids.

BMS 513 Biostatistics in Regulatory Applications

Prerequisite: Open to students with a declared concentration in regulatory compliance. (Offered as needed/3 credits))  

This course will provide the student with a broad understanding of the application of biostatistics in the regulatory context. Course topics will focus on the basic study design, target population, comparision groups and endpoints for animal studies through clinical trials phase I-IV. Specific emphasis will be placed on addressing issues within the US regulatory environment.

BMS 520 Protein Purification and Characterization

Prerequisite: BMS 511. (Summer/3 credits/lab fee)  

A lecture and lab course addressing the principles and practical aspects of protein purification and characterization. In addition, the course will cover practical aspects of enzymology, including kinetic analysis of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

BMS 523 Cell Structure and Function

Prerequisites: Organic chemistry and cell biology. (First semester/3 credits) 

A study of the structure of cellular organelles and the biochemistry of cellular events, including signal transduction, transport, protein synthesis, respiration, secretion and tissue organizations. Emphasis is given to experimental designs used in analyzing cellular structures and/or functions.

BMS 524/BIOL 424 Molecular Biology of Eukaryotic Cells

Prerequisite: Genetics course or equivalent. (Second semester/3 credits)  

The molecular biology of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Topics include gene mapping, diagnostic screening for genetic anomalies, molecular cloning and genetic regulatory mechanisms. Emphasis on current experimental techniques used to map genes and understand gene expression.

BMS 525/BIOL 425 Virology

Prerequisites: BMS 523 and BMS 524. (First semester/3 credits) 

An introduction to animal viruses with emphasis on classification, structure, the molecular biology of replication and biological activity within eukaryotic cells.

BMS 526 Molecular Mechanisms of Development

Prerequisites: BMS 523 and BMS 524. (Offered as needed/3 credits) 

A study of the molecular mechanisms that initiate and regulate development in the context of model organisms. The developmental events studied include determination, differentiation, induction, pattern formation, morphogenesis, regeneration and aging.

BMS 527 Pathogenic Microbiology (Laboratory–Lecture course)

(First semester—even years/3 credits/lab fee) 

The biology of microorganisms including morphological, biochemical, genetic, pathogenic and antigenic attributes, with special emphasis on experimental and theoretical aspects of the mechanisms of pathogenicity and virulence. 

BMS 528/BIOL 428 Immunology

Prerequisite: BMS 523. (First semester/3 credits) 

Theories and mechanism of the immune response, including structure and function of immunoglobulins, antigen-antibody reactions, immunobiology, immunogenetics, immuno- logic enhancement, immunologic protection, immunologic injury, humoral and cell mediimmunity and experimental methods of analysis of antigen-antibody reactions.

BMS 531 Prokaryotic Genetics

Prerequisite: BMS 524 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/3 credits) 

A study of selected topics in genetic regulation, replication, recombination and repair of bacteria. An examination of research that uses genetic approaches to investigate biological systems at the molecular level.

BMS 533 Medical Virology

Prerequisite: BMS 525. (First semester—odd years/3 credits) 

The role of viruses in human infectious diseases and tumor formation; the host response to viral infection and the epidemiology of viral diseases.

BMS 534/BIOL 434 Basic Principles and Methods of Molecular Genetics (Laboratory–Lecture course)

Prerequisite: BMS 524 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/3 credits/lab fee)  

This integrated lab-lecture course provides basic concepts and hands-on experience with common molecular genetics and recombinant DNA methods. Topics include techniques for the isolation of DNA and RNA, gene cloning employing plasmid vectors, DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), expression of fusion proteins in E. coli, site-directed mutagenesis, and web-based analysis ofDNA and protein sequence data.

BMS 535 Advanced Topics in Recombinant DNA Technology: Gene Transfer, Expression, and Detection (Laboratory–Lecture course)

Prerequisite: BMS 534 or permission of the instructor. (Summers as needed/3 credits/lab fee) 

A study of the theory and techniques for the introduction, expression and detection of macromolecules in eukaryotic cells. The topics to be covered include the introduction of recombinant genes in eukaryotic hosts by transfection, lipofection and microinjection. Methodologies to produce transgenic animals will be discussed. Analysis of eukaryotic gene expression and detection of activity, northern and western analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization to chromosomes.

BMS 537/437 Introduction to Bioinformatics (Laboratory-Lecture course)

Prerequisites: BMS 511 and BMS 524 or permission of the instructor. (Both semesters/ 3 credits/lab fee). 

Sequence data on numerous organisms is accumulating at staggering rates, raising important questions about how to handle and interpret the data. This hands-on, applied course will introduce students to the use of computer software and Web servers in the analysis of biological sequence data (DNA and protein). Topics include: Pairwise and multiple sequence alignment, BLAST, scoring matrices, phylogenetic analysis, gene identification, DNA sequence analysis and prediction of 2-D and 3-D molecular structures.

BMS 538 General Pharmacology

Prerequisites: BMS 511, BMS 512 and BMS 523, or permission of the instructor.(Offered as needed/3 credits) 

An introduction into the properties of therapeutic drugs used to treat disease. Topics include receptors, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic properties, toxicities, indications for use, drug development and testing. The course will emphasize general principles and specific, selected therapeutic classes of drugs.

BMS 539 Molecular Immunology (Laboratory–Lecture course)

Prerequisite: BMS 528. (Offered as needed/3 credits/lab fee) 

This combined lecture and laboratory course is designed to introduce modern molecular concepts and techniques used in immunology. The lecture includes discussions of Ig gene assembly, rearrangements, regulation and expression; T-cell receptors; molecular mechanisms of antigen processing; and advances in antibody engineering. The laboratory exercises cover basic immunological techniques such as ELISA, immunoblot, hybridoma preparation aevaluation, immunoaffinity chromatography and phage display of antibody fragments.

BMS 540 Advanced Topics in Recombinant DNA Technology: Genome Analysis and Mapping (Laboratory–Lecture course)

Prerequisite: BMS 534 or permission of the instructor. (Second semester—odd years/3 credits/ lab fee) 

A study of the techniques used in the cloning, analysis and mapping of genomic DNA. Topics include cloning with cosmid, P1 and YAC vectors, techniques used in linkage analysis and the direct detection of genomic polymorphisms, and strategies to prepare genetic and physical maps. The impact of the combined use of genetic and physical maps in biomedicine will be discussed.

BMS 541 Advanced Topics in Recombinant DNA Technology: Gene Structure and Function (Laboratory–Lecture course)

Prerequisite: BMS 534 or permission of the instructor. (Second semster—even years/3 credits/lab fee) 

A study of advanced topics in recombinant DNA technology including high resolution mapping of RNA, nucleic acid-protein interactions, current methodologies for DNA sequence analysis and mutagensis strategies. The impact of these recombinant DNA techniques on developments in biomedicine will be discussed.

BMS 542 Ethics in Science

(Summer/3 credits) 

The course is intended to bring attention to the many ethical dilemmas one could face in a career in science, including how the information gained in the research lab is conveyed to the wider scientific audience and how society at large benefits from the knowledge. Topics included are the peer review process, the patent process, the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, the FDA’s role in drug approval and clinical trial assessments, the funding of research in the private and public sector and the national research prioritization process. Each topic will be discussed using current key articles as an illustration of each concept. 

BMS 543 Advanced Immunology

Prerequisite: BMS 528 or permission of the instructor. (Second semester/3 credits) 

A seminar course offering an in-depth investigation of a prescribed area of immunology. Past topics have dealt with AIDS/HIV, cancer and intracellular signaling, all emphasizing the role of the immune response. The format includes invited experts as well as oral and written student presentations. Emphasis is placed on the use of current literature to develop a thorough understanding of recent advances. The course is intended not only for graduate students, but also for investigators wishing to become current in the area addressed.

BMS 544 Good Laboratory Practices: A Practical Approach

Prerequisite: Open to students with a declared concentration in Regulatory Compliance, or permission of the instructor. (First semester/3 credits) 

The course is designed to provide a practical knowledge and understanding of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations with examples useful to laboratory workers, study directors and management. The course will address the current interpretation of the code of federal regulations (21CFR58) and the International Committee on Harmonization (ICH).

BMS 545 Product Development

Prerequisite: Open to students with a declared concentration in Regulatory Compliance, or permission of the instructor. (First semester/3 credits)  

The course provides an overview of the regulatory process for new biologics, drug and device development. Emphasis is on a strategic development approach and good science standards to ensure safe and effective new therapies for prevention and treatment of disease.

BMS 546 Good Manufacturing Practice

Prerequisite: Open to students with a declared concentration in Regulatory Compliance, or permission of the instructor. (Second semester/3 credits)  

This course will provide students with an in-depth review of current good manufacturing practice regulations promulgated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in their regulation of the drug and device industries. Recent FDA regulatory compliance experience regarding the application of the GMP regulations, including areas where industry has failed to correctly apply or interpret current GMPs will also be examined.

BMS 547 Development of Pharmaceutics and the Regulatory Environment

Prerequisite: Open to students with a declared concentration in Regulatory Compliance, or permission of the instructor. (Summer/3 credits)  

The development of pharmaceutical products is under strict regulatory control. This course examines the interaction of the scientific and regulatory environment required to assure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products for human and veterinary use. The process for development of pharmaceutical products is discussed relative to issues of ethics, environmental protection, validation, audits and business decisions which accompany the development of ethical drugs. The regulatory approval processes for new drugs in developed countries are contrasted to those of developing nations. Course grades are determined by evaluation of mterm and final exam.

BMS 548 Good Clinical Practice

Prerequisite: Open to students with a declared concentration in Regulatory Compliance, or permission of the instructor. (Second semester/3 credits)  

This course provides a detailed explanation of the guidelines that should be followed when generating clinical data that are intended to be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration in support of a product license. The principles of clinical trial conduct and design can be applied to any investigation involving human subjects.

BMS 549 Regulation of Medical Devices

Prerequisites: BMS 545 and BMS 547. (Second semester/3 credits) 

This course offers an overview of the historical development as well as the current status of the laws, regulations and guidelines governing medical devices. The course focuses on key aspects of gaining regulatory approval for all classes of medical devices using various submission processes including the 510(k) Premarket Notification, the Premarket Approval Application and the Product Development Protocol.

BMS 550 Food and Drug Law

Prerequisites: BMS 545, BMS 548 and one of BMS 544, BMS 546 or BMS 547. (First semester/ 3 credits)  

This course examines the federal food, drug, biologic, cosmetic and medical device laws and their impact upon research, development, manufacturing and marketing of products. Other topics such as business policy, pharmacoeconomics and quality of life will also be discussed.

BMS 551 Advanced Bioinformatics

Prerequisite: BMS 537. (Second semester/3 credits) 

The course requires some background knowledge in bioinformatics. Topics include advanced BLAST searching, multiple sequence alignment, gene expression analysis, Proteomics and protein networks etc. The course is designed to provide practical training in advanced bioinformatics tools. Students will also be exposed to various bioinformatics software packages.

BMS 570 Research Seminar

Prerequisite: Completion of 18 credits of coursework in the BMS program with a “B” average, or permission of the instructor. (First semester/3 credits)  

A comprehensive review of literature pertinent to the individual student’s thesis will be presented orally and in written format. Thesis proposals will be discussed and critiqued, and data will be evaluated and interpreted by all students. In addition, the guidelines to writing the thesis and the preparation of the oral defense will be examined. This course is graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

BMS 571 Biomedical Science Seminar

Prerequisite: Completion of 18 credits of coursework in the BMS program with a “B” average, or permission of the instructor. (First semester/3 credits)  

A review of current literature in selected areas of molecular and cellular biology, immunology and microbiology. Students will make oral presentations of the data from published research. In addition, students will choose a specific research problem to address in a grant proposal-like paper. The scientific merit of the proposal will be defended before a faculty reading committee. This course is graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

BMS 580 Master’s Thesis Preparation

(6 credits) 

Supervision of the master’s thesis. Required of all degree candidates who select the thesis option.

BMS 585 Master’s Field Work Project

(6 credits)  

Supervision of the master’s thesis. Required of all degree candidates who select the thesis option.

BMS 585 Master’s Field Work Project(2)

(3 credits) 

Supervision of the master’s field work project. Required of all degree candidates who select the field work project option.

BMS 590 Advanced Topics in Biomedical Techniques

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. (May require a lab fee/Either semester/3 credits) 

A practical course in newer methods and instrumentation used in biomedical research. Theory is discussed but emphasis is on the actual performance of procedures and interpretation of results. The course is intended not only for graduate students but also for investigators who are interested in learning procedures used in disciplines other than their own field that can be useful in their research.

ENV 501 Introduction to Environmental Biology

(First semester/3 credits) 

This course introduces the student to the principles of environmental biology. It offers an in-depth analysis of the biological and social variables associated with major environmental issues. Energy, metabolism, natural resource utilization, population dynamics and technologi¬cal developments are examined in the context of ecological systems. An emphasis on and understanding of global climate change is developed throughout the semester, and its effects are related to the major concepts in environmental biology.

ENV 503/ENSP 403 Pollution Biology

Prerequisite: Completion of or concurrent enrollment in ENV 501 or permission of instructor. (Second semester/3 credits)  

This course will study the sources, fates and biological effects of a wide variety of environmental pollutants. Topics covered include: air, water and soil pollution; techniques for monitoring and evaluating pollution effects; and pollution control technologies. The factors leading to and evidence for global climate change will be examined in depth. Case studies will be employed to illustrate the social, economic, and political issues surrounding many pollution problems.

ENV 505 Biostatistics

(First semester/3 credits) 

This course introduces principles and statistical methods used in biological research. Topics include sampling methods, frequency distributions, descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing, probability, t-test, analysis of variance, linear regression and various nonparametric tests. A statistical software package is introduced in laboratory exercises. Statistical problems involving global climate change are used throughout the semester.

ENV 506 Environmental Microbiology

Prerequisites: ENV 501 and 502, or permission of the instructor. (First semester—even years/3 credits) 

Environmental microbiology studies the applied effects of microorganisms on the environment and on human activity, health and welfare. It asks how can we use our understanding of microbes in the environment to benefit society. This course begins with an overview of the basic biology, ecology and history of the other (non-plant and non-animal) kingdomes of life: the archaea, bacteria, protoctista and algae and fungi. Special attention is given to the observable evidence and environmental activities of microbial cells in terrestrial, aquatic and extreme environments. The course emphasizes ecological interactions among microbes, between microbes and plants and between microbes and animals. Special topics include organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, degradation of man-made chemicals, wastewater treatment, metal recovery, lichens, mycorrhizal associations, animal disease, plant pathogens and microorganisms and foods. Although not its primary focus, the course will discuss human health in the context of microbial ecology.

ENV 507/ENSP 407 Natural Resource Management

Prerequisites: ENV 501 and 502, or permission of the instructor. (Second semester/3 credits) 

This course is designed to introduce students to the basic principles of natural resource management and the complexities of applying these principles to real-world problems. The focus is on the biological and ecological basis for wildlife and fisheries management. Students will gain experience with quantitative and qualitative techniques used to analyze and manage ecosystems in an integrated fashion that combines biological, economic and political considerations. The impact of global climate change on long-term management plans will also be considered.

ENV 509 Ecological Invasions and Biological Control

Prerequisites: ENV 501, ENV 502 and ENV 505. (Second semester—odd years/3 credits) 

Invasions by exotic species of plants and animals are one of the major environmental problems in the world today. Invasions will be examined from the perspective of the invading species and from the community being invaded. The potential for controlling these exotic species with biological control agents will be evaluated, and biological control will be compared with other potential control methods.

ENV 511/ENSP 411 Conservation Biology

Prerequisites: ENV 501 and 502, or permission of instructor. (First semester/3 credits) 

Conservation Biology examines the critical problems of maintaining, enhancing and restoring biological diversity for the 21st century. It applies disciplines such as ecology, population biology, genetics and modeling to the conservation of rare or keystone species and endangered ecosystems. The course includes discussion of multidisciplinary topics such as international trade in wildlife, ethnobotany, ecological restoration, conservation ethics, natural resource economics, conservation genetics and ecotourism. Students contribute to the seminar format through journal exercises, active discussion, role-playing and oral presentations. 

ENV 512 Insect Ecology

Prerequisites: ENV 501, ENV 502 and ENV 503 or permission of instructor. (Second semester—even years/3 credits) 

This course will introduce graduate students to advanced topics in insect ecology. Students will review both foundational and current research in peer-reviewed journals on insect interactions and behavior. A broad overview of the major insect orders and their development will be covered. We will also explore distribution patterns, diversity, insect-plant co-evolution, and common interactions in insect communities as they relate to each other and other organisms.

ENV 513 Marine Ecology

Prerequisites: ENV 501 and 502, or permission of the instructor. (Fall semester—even years/3 credits) 

The ecology of marine and estuarine systems, including the plankton, rocky shores, soft- sediment bottoms, seagrass beds, salt marshes and coral reefs, will be explored. Planktonic and benthic processes will receive equal emphasis. Applied topics in fisheries management and in human impacts on marine environments will be introduced. Several optional field trips tin the Chesapeake Bay region and a required research paper are planned.

ENV 515 Research Design and Data Analysis

Prerequisites: ENV 505, completion of 15 credits of required courses in the ENV program and at least a 3.0 grade point average, or permission of the instructor. (First semester/3 credits)  

This course introduces the concepts and computational techniques of multiple linear regression, logistic regression, chi-square, and nonparametric multivariate analysis. Methods to optimize study design are stressed. Extensive use of a statistical software package will be used in laboratory exercises. The ability to critically evaluate the scientific merit of research proposals in environmental biology will be developed through peer review exercises. Applications of statistical techniques to global climate change will be emphasized. Comprehensive individual research proposals will be developed as the term project.

ENV 522A Sampling Methods in Aquatic Ecosystems

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Summer–odd years/1 credit) 

Students will learn and practice commonly-used aquatic sampling methodologies as well as be introduced to procedures for the analysis of field-collected data. Practical experience will be gained in the methods employed for qualitatively and quantitatively evaluating a wide range of aquatic habitats.

ENV 522B Sampling Methods in Animal Ecology

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/1 credit) 

This course provides an overview of methods employed in the collection and analysis information regarding terrestrial animal populations. In addition, it will provide practical experience in the techniques necessary for qualitatively and quantitatively evaluating tphysical, chemical and biological parameters within these systems.

ENV 522C Sampling Methods in Vegetation Science

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Second semester—odd years/1 credit) 

This course provides an overview of standard procedures used for data collection and analysis in terrestrial plant communities. In addition it will provide practical experience in the methods employed for qualitatively and quantitatively evaluating the physical, chemical and biological parameters within these systems. 

ENV 522D Sampling Methods for Terrestrial Insects

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Summer—odd years/1 credit) 

This course provides an overview of standard procedures used for data collection and analysis of terrestrial insect communities. Students will learn how to sample insects in a broad range of categories from litter communities to aerial species. In addition it will provide practical experience in the methods employed for qualitatively and quantitatively evaluating insects in these same systems.

ENV 524A Identification of Local Woody Vegetation

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/1 credit) 

An introduction to the taxonomy and identification of woody vegetation of the Maryland region. Habitat preferences, natural history and methods of collection in preservation also will be covered.

ENV 524B Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Identification

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or ENV 503, or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/1 credit) 

An introduction to the use of taxonomic keys for the identification of freshwater macroinvertebrates. Insect morphology and development will also be reviewed. Field trips will provide opportunities to observe ecological adaptations and to collect specimens.

ENV 524C Algal Systematics and Experimental Methods

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/1 credit) 

An introduction to the classification and identification of algae including freshwater, estuarine and marine phytoplankton and macroalgae. The identification of algae will be considered within the context of environmental functions and human significance. Class field trips provide an opportunity for students to relate algal diversity to habitat.

ENV 524D Regional Vertebrate Biodiversity

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/1 credit) 

This course provides an overview of the collection, identification and natural history of vertebrates from Maryland. Field exercises will provide opportunities to observe these organisms in their respective habitats and to collect specimens. Students will learn the ecological adaptations, physiographic distribution and economic importance of selected vertebrates. Two overnight field trips are required.

ENV 524E Terrestrial Insect Identification

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/1 credit) 

This course provides an introduction to the classification and identification of major insect orders and families found in Maryland. Identification will be considered within the context of ecological functions, economic importance and human significance. Although some examples will be provided, students are required to provide their own insect samples for identification either by enrolling concurrently in ENV522D or by other independent efforts.

ENV 526A Genetic Methods for Studying Individuals in Populations

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/1 credit) 

This course will introduce the theory and practice of molecular genetics as it addresses questions at the level of individuals within populations. The course will examine the evolutionary forces affecting genetic variation within populations and how this variation can be used as a tool for determining individual identity, parentage and other degrees of relatedness between individuals within a population. Genetic methods for identifying individuals will be compared to non-genetic methods. Molecular techniques that are especially useful to conservation biology and behavioral ecology will be introduced in the laboratory, and their applications will be extensively discussed.

ENV 526B Genetic Methods for Studying Populations and Species

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/1 credit) 

This course will examine genetic variation as the raw material of evolutionary processes and as a tool for assessing the past and present evolutionary history of populations or species. The use of molecular data in determining the relationships among species will also be discussed. Molecular techniques that are especially useful to conservation and evolutionary biology will be introduced in the laboratory, and their applications will be extensively discussed.

ENV 526D Computer Modeling of Biological Systems

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/1 credit) 

A course which integrates techniques of dynamic modeling into a variety of biological sub-disciplines. Students will become proficient in the use of STELLA, an object-oriented computer modeling program, to describe the structural and functional features of complex biological systems.

ENV 526F Modeling Structured Populations

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/1 credit) 

This course will introduce the modeling of structured populations. Deterministic models will be used as a starting point, but the course will emphasize stochastic models that can incorporate several types of variability into demographic parameters. Several aspects of population structure will be considered, including age, stage, genetic and spatial structure. Topics examined will include population dynamics, regulation and harvesting; metapopulation structure; conservation genetics; risk assessment; and population viability analysis.

ENV 526G Introduction to GIS Mapping

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (First semesteras needed/1 credit) 

GIS Mapping is the first of a sequence of three graduate methods courses introducing fundamental topics in geographic information systems as applied to environmental biology.  After introducing information systems, georeferenced data, and vector-based versus raster-based GIS, the course focuses on basic principles of map design and digital cartography, including scale, projection, and symbolization and generalization of geometry and content.  The class concludes with an overview of GPS (global positioning system) technology.  Lectures complement intensive, hands-on use of the ArcGIS software package through in-class and homework tutorials and challenge exercises.  Students demonstrate mastery of principles through compilation of a final portfolio and production of a GIS map using sound cartographic principles.

ENV 528A Introduction to Aquaculture

Prerequisite: ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/1 credit) 

This course will be an overview of the major types of aquacultural production including ponds, cage culture, raceways and recirculation systems and important species produced in these systems. In addition, the nature of the aqueous environment as a production medium and the critical role water quality testing and management play in the growth and survival of aquaculture crops will be stressed. There will be several field trips to commercial aquaculture facilities and hands-on activities including water quality testing and assembling a demonstration recirculation unit.

ENV 541 Behavioral Ecology

Prerequisites: ENV 501, 502 and 505, or permission of the instructor. (Second semester—odd years/3 credits) 

This course introduces students to the principles of behavioral ecology. The theoretical context of the course is the role of natural selection in the evolution of intra- and interspecific behaviors. The focus of investigation includes foraging, predator-prey relationships, habitat utilization, sociality and kinship, sexual selection and parental investment.

ENV 550 Current Topics in Environmental Biology

Prerequisites: ENV 501 and 502, or permission of the instructor. (Interdisciplinary: biology, chemistry/Offered as needed/1-3 credits)  

Current issues of major environmental concern will be examined on an interdisciplinary basis in a seminar forum. A current issue of environmental significance, such as land use or energy, will be selected at the beginning of each term for review and analysis. Relevant current literature including environmental journals, environmental impact statements, recent interdisciplinary reference works and news media information will be studied and discussed in making cause-and-effect analysis of selected issues. Recent topics have included: Amphibian Ecology of Mid-Atlantic States, Applied Insect Ecology, Community Ecology, Sustainable Agriculture, The Biology of the Chesapeake Bay, Tropical Marine Ecology and Wetlands.

ENV 551/BIOL 451 Plant Ecology

Prerequisites: ENV 501 and 502, or permission of the instructor. (Second semester—odd years/3 credits) 

A study of the effects of environmental fluctuations on vegetational patterning, basic mechanisms and interactions within the plant environment system and current problems in plant ecology. Topics include the vital processes of plants, the effects of environmental factors on their metabolism and energy transformations and their ability to adapt to these factors.

ENV 563 Freshwater Ecology

Prerequisites: ENV 501 and 502, or permission of the instructor. (First semester—odd years/3 credits) 

Physical, chemical and biological aspects of lakes and streams are explored. Aquatic organisms typical of freshwater ecosystems are surveyed along with their interrelationships and the physical and chemical components of the aquatic environment controlling their distribution and abundance. Productivity, energy flow and nutrient cycles are also discussed. Sampling and analysis techniques are described.

ENV 564 Environmental Toxicology

Prerequisites: ENV 501, 502 and 503, or permission of the instructor. (First semester—odd years/3 credits) 

Introduction to the principles of pharmacology and pathology that apply to mammalian toxicology. Emphasis will be on basic concepts of toxin/drug response, uptake, distribution and metabolism in mammalian systems. Other major environmental topics to be considered are pathology, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, teratogenicity and pharmacogenetics.

ENV 565 Environmental Toxicology Laboratory

Prerequisite: ENV 564 or permission of the instructor. (Second semester—odd years/1 credit) 

This is a laboratory-based environmental toxicology course that is focused on the requirements of the EPA National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program. The course is designed to provide students with practical experience in meeting the regulatory requirements regarding field and laboratory studies in environmental toxicology. To this end, students will follow EPA guidance on the requirements for sampling, toxicity assays, statistical analysis and report writing. An additional component in this course is the assay of vitellogenin in fish. Vitellogenin is an important biological marker for environmental estrogens and this study will engage students in reviewing the possible environmental consequences of such chemicals. This course complements ENV 564 Environmental Toxicology by developing practical skills in the discipline, and in the application of acquired knowledge to critically evaluate the assays and their results and draw appropriate conclusions.

ENV 579 Independent Research Project

Prerequisites: All required and four elective courses. (3 credits) 

Required of students not doing a thesis. The student must collect and analyze data that address a specific hypothesis. A written proposal must be submitted to a faculty adviser prior to the student’s enrolling and a final written report is due to the adviser at the end of the project.

ENV 502 Principles of Ecology

(First semester—odd years/3 credits) 

This course analyzes the interactions between living organisms and the environment. A quantitative approach will be used to examine the population dynamics of plants and animals, community interactions such as competition and predation and ecosystem processes including succession, energy flow and nutrient cycles. The application of modern ecological theory to current environmental problems will be emphasized including the observed and anticipated ecological impacts of global climate change.

ENV 508 Animal Physiology

Prerequisites: ENV 501 and ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Offered as needed/3 credits) 

Physiological interrelationships between animals and their environment are explored. Physiological adaptations will be discussed with a view toward their significance in the ecological realm and evolutionary origins. Both vertebrates and invertebrates will be examined. Physiological processes will be discussed from both qualitative and quantitative viewpoints at several organizational levels (biochemical, cellular, organ system and organismal) 

ENV 526H Introduction to GIS Analysis

Prerequisite:ENV 502 and ENV 526G or permission of instructor (First semester—as needed/1 credit) 

GIS Analysis is the second of a sequence of graduate methods courses introducing fundamental topics in geographic information systems as applied to environmental biology. Building on the cartographic principles mastered in GIS Mapping, students in this course will expand their GIS analytical skill set and gain a deeper understanding of the statistical and scientific principles that underlie the measurement of geographic distributions, the identification of geographic patterns and clusters, and the analysis of geographic relationships. Lectures complement intensive, hands-on use of the ArcGIS software package through in-class and homework tutorials and challenge exercises. Students demonstrate mastery of principles through compilation of a final portfolio and writing of a prospectus for a GIS research project that they could undertake for a capstone experience.

ENV 514/BIOL 414 Comparative Animal Physiology

Prerequisite: ENV 501 and ENV 502 or permission of the instructor. (Second semester—As needed/3 credits) 

This course explores the physiological adaptations of both vertebrate and invertebrate animals, with particular emphasis on the evolutionary origins and ecological significance of these adaptations. Physiological processes will be discussed from both qualitative and quantitative viewpoints at multiple levels of biological organization.

ENV 526I Introduction to Remote Sensing

<p><em>Prerequisites: ENV 502 and ENV 526G or permission of the instructor; ENV 528 is strongly recommended. (Second semester—as needed/1 credit)</em>&#160;</p>

<p>Introduction to Remote Sensing is the third of a sequence of three mini-courses introducing fundamental topics in geographic information systems as applied to environmental biology. Building on the cartographic principles and statistical analysis tools explored in previous GIS courses, students will expand their GIS analytical skill set and gain a deeper understanding of how remotely sensed data can be used to address environmental questions. Lectures complement intensive, hands-on use of the IDIRSI and ArcGIS software packages through in-class and homework tutorials and challenge exercises. Students demonstrate mastery of principles through compilation of a final portfolio and performing a supervised Land Use/Land Cover classification of a local watershed using Landsat remotely sensed data.</p>